Ballard F, Wallace J, Francis G, Read L, Tomas F. Des (1-3) IGF-1: a truncated form of insulin-like growth factor-1. International Journal of Cellular Biology. 28:1085-1087 (1996). Des (1-3) IGF-1 is a truncated form of IGF that is 10 times more potent than IGF-1 in stimulating hypertrophy and proliferation of cells in vitro. It is present in bovine colostrum.
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Bhora F, Dunkin, B, Batzri S, Aly HM, Bass BL, Sidawy AN, Harmon JW. Effect of growth factors on cell proliferation and epithelialization in human skin. Journal of Surgery Res. 59:236-244 (1995). Fibroblast growth factor, IGF-1 and epithelial growth factor are all important mitogens for wound healing in the skin. All are found in bovine colostrum
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Bricker D. Colostrum: Implications for accelerated recovery in damaged muscle and cartilage, prevention of some pathogenic disease. The American Chiropractor pp 3-4 (1991).
Burrin D, Davis T, Ebner S, Schoknecht P, Fiorotto M, Reeds P. Colostrum enhances the nutritional stimulation of vital organ protein synthesis in neonatal pigs. American Society for Nutritional Sciences. 127(7):1284-1289 (1997). Protein synthesis was higher in colostrum-fed pigs than in those which did not receive colostrum.
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Cass TL. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1, Somatomedin C) blood levels are not associated with prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels or prostate cancer: A study of 749 patients. Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI
Donovan SM, Hartke JL, Monaco MH, Wheeler MB. Insulin-like Growth Factor-I and Piglet Intestinal Development. Journal of Dairy Science 87(E Suppl.):E46-E54 (2004). Piglets suckling from IGF-1 transgenic sows (i.e. sows that have been transgenically altered to overexpress IGF-1 in their milk) showed increased villus growth and disaccharidase activity, indicating improved intestinal health.
Francis GL, Read LC, Ballard FJ, Bagley CJ, Upton FM, Gravestock PM, Wallace JC. Purification and partial sequence analysis of insulin-like growth factor-1 from bovine colostrum. Journal of Biochemistry 233:207-213 (1986). Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is purified and identified by sequence analyais from bovine colostrum.
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Francis GL, Upton FM, Ballard FJ, McNeil KA, Wallace JC. Insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2 in bovine colostrum. Journal of Biochemistry. 251(1):95-103 (1988). Both IGF-1 and IGF-2 as well as a truncated, more potent form of IGF-1 were found in bovine colostrum. IGF is a mitogen that controls replication and repair of DNA and RNA in order to stimulate tissue growth.
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Fryburg D. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 enhance human skeletal muscle protein anabolism during hyperamino-acidemia by different mechanisms. Journal of Clinical Investigations 96(4):1722-1729 (1995). Insulin inhibits the breakdown of protein in muscle, thereby increasing protein anabolism (the creation of new protein by combining the constituent parts through the use of energy). IGF-1, on the other hand, promotes muscle anabolism by stimulating protein synthesis. Even in the case of hyperaminoacid-emia (an abundance of available amino acids), insulin continues to promote muscle protein balance solely by inhibiting the digestion of muscle, which IGF-1 combined with hyperaminoacidemia enhances protein synthesis more than either one alone.
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Ginjala V, Pakkanen R. Determination of transforming growth factor-B1 (TGF-B1) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in bovine colostrum samples. Journal of Immunoassay 19(2-3):195-207 (1998). The principal growth factors in bovine colostrum are transforming growth factors beta-1 and beta 2 and insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2. Both TGF-B1 and IGF-1 were identified in the first postpartum milking.
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Juskevich J. Bovine Growth Hormone: Human Food Safety Evaluation. Science. 249(4971):875-883 (1990). Bovine Growth Hormone (bGH) is not active in humans. Its use in dairy cows increases the amount of IGF-1 in colostrum and milk, but the levels seen with bGH use do not exceed the range of levels of IGF-1 in human milk. Biologically signficant levels of IGF-1 are not absorbed from cow's milk.
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Khansari DN, Gustad T. Effects of long-term, low-dose growth hormone therapy on immune function and life expectancy of mice. Mechanics of Aging and Development 57(1):87-100 (1991). Low-dose, prolonged growth hormone therapy significantly extended the life span of mice compared to controls.
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Marcotty C, Frankenne F, Van Beeumen J, Maghuin-Rogister G, Hennen G. Insulin-like growth I (IGF-I) from cow colostrum: Purification and characterization. Growth Regulation. 1(2):56-61 (1991). IGF-1 was purified from bovine colostrum and found to be identical to both bovine and human serum IGF-1.
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Miers W, Barrett E. The role of insulin and other hormones in the regulation of amino acid and protein metabolism in humans. Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology. 9(2-4):235-253 (1998). At low levels insulin primarily inhibits protein degradation and IGF-1 stimulates protein synthesis. At higher levels both seem to inhibit protein degradation and stimulate protein synthesis.
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Murphy MS. Growth factors and the gastrointestinal tract. Nutrition 14(10):771-774 (1998). Various growth factors are produced in the gut, including epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-α), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), amphiregulin, betacellulin, heparin-binding EGF-like peptide. They are also present in colostrum and milk. EGF promotes repair of the mucosal lining of the gut. TGF-α plays a role in mucosal healing. TGF-β, on the other hand, inhibits cell proliferation and promotes cell differentiation.
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Noda K, Umeda M, Ono T. Transforming growth factor activity in human colostrum. Gann. 75(2):109-112 (1984). High levels of TGF were found in human colostrum with highest levels found in the earliest colostrum collected.
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Nowak J, Olszewski J, Kozal E. Insulin and sugar concentration changes in mammary secretion in sheep during the periparturient period. Reproduction, Nutrition, Development 34(1):3-8 (1994). Highest levels of insulin were found in the earliest colostrum, which sugar levels increased in inverse correlation to decreasing levels of insulin in older colostrum and milk.
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Oda S, Satoh H, Sugawara T, Matsunaga N, Kuhara T, Katoh K, Shoji Y, Nihei A, Ohta M, Sasaki Y. Insulin-like growth factor-I, GH, insulin and glucagon concentrations in bovine colostrum and in plasma of dairy cows and neonatal calves around parturition. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, A, Comparative Physiology 94(4):805-808 (1989). Levels of IGF-1 in colostrum collected from cows on days 1 and 2 postpartum were higher than levels in blood plasma from the cows, while levels of insulin, growth hormone and glucagon were much lower than in cow plasma.
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Oz HS, Ray M, Chen TS, McClain CJ. Efficacy of a transforming growth factor beta 2 containing nutritional support formula in a murine model of inflammatory bowel disease. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 23(3):220-226 (2004). Mice with an experimentally-induced inflammatory bowel disease fed a diet rich in transforming growth factor beta-2 (TGF-ß2) gained more weight, did not develop diarrhea or prolapse, had lower pathological scores and lower serum amyloid (SAA). This study supports the use of TGF-ß2 diets in the treatment of Crohn’s disease.
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Pakkanen R, Aalto J. Review paper: Growth factors and antimicrobial factors of bovine colostrum. International Dairy Journal. 7:285-297 (1997). Colostrum is a complex fluid rich in nutrients, antibodies and growth factors. The antibodies provide passive immunity in the calf, which the growth factors stimulate the growth and development of the gut.
Pakkanen R. Determination of transforming growth factor-ß2 (TGF-ß2) in bovine colostrum samples. Journal of Immunoassay. 19(1):23-37 (1998). TGF-ß2 is the major form of TGF in bovine colostrum, accounting for about 95% of total TGF. It is virtually identical to human TGF.
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Playford RJ, Ghosh S. Cytokines and growth factor modulators in intestinal inflammation and repair. Journal of Pathology 205(4):417-425 (2005) . Breakdown in gastrointestinal mucosal integrity may be due to increased aggressive factors, including an excessive inflammatory response, decreased mucosal defence or a combination of the two. Our understanding of the control processes underlying these changes has rapidly expanded over the last decade and it is becoming clear that rather than being distinct elements, inflammation and repair are interrelated processes mediated by common cytokines and growth factors, with the division of factors as being a cytokine or a growth factor being somewhat artificial. The use of biological therapies, such as antibodies that cause receptor blockade or administering recombinant growth factors, has now progressed from the laboratory to the clinical arena.
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Rudman D, Feller AG, Nagraj HS, Gergans GA, Lalitha PY, Goldberg AF, Schlenker RA, Cohn L, Rudman IW, Mattson DE. Effects of human growth hormone in men over 60 years old. New England Journal of Medicine 323(1):1-6 (1990). Growth hormone levels decline with age. This may contribute to to the decrease in lean body mass and increase in fat mass that also occur with aging. Levels of IGF-1 were measured in elderly men both with growth hormone supplementation and without. Results confirmed that growth hormone levels correlated with lean body and fat mass.
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Russell J, Feldman E. Insulin-like growth factor-I prevents apoptosis in sympathetic neurons exposed to high glucose. Hormone and Metababolic Research 31(2-3):90-96 (1999). Diabetic autonomic neuropathy is a major cause of morbidity and death. IGF-1 protects sympathetic neurons from death in conditions of high glucose levels, suggesting a possible etiology of the condition as well as a possible therapy for it.
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Sara VR, Hall K. Insulin-like growth factors and their binding proteins. Physiological Reviews. 70(3):591-614 (1990). Molecular sequences of IGFs and their receptors.
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Shimizu M, Webster C, Morgan DO, Blau HM, Roth RA. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor receptors and responses in cultured human muscle cells. American Journal of Physiology. 251(5 Part1):E611-E615 (1986). Muscle cells have specific receptors for IGF-1 and IGF-2.
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Shing Y, Klagsbrun M. Purification and characterization of a bovine colostrum-derived growth factor. Molecular Endocrinology. 1(5):335-338 (1987). A specific growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, purified from bovine colostrum.
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Shomali M, Wolfsthal S. The use of anti-aging hormones. Maryland Medical Journal 46(4):181-186 (1997). While the use of anti-aging hormones, such as melatonin, growth hormone, testosterone and DHEA, has become very popular, the benfits of doing so are based on animals studies and weak associations for the most part. There is insufficient evidence to recommend these as anti-aging remedies, and there are potential risks from their use.
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Skottner A, Arrhenius-Nyberg V, Kanje M, Fryklund L. Anabolic and tissue repair functions of recombinant insulin-like growth factor I. Acta Pediatrica Scandinavica 367:63-66 (1990). Recombinant IGF-1 (rIGF-1) caused significant weight gain and bone growth when given to mutant dwarf rats. Using rIGF-1 locally on hypophysectomized rats showed that IGF-1 could have a significant effecton the regeneration of peripheral nerves.
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Sporn MB, Roberts AB, Shull JH, Smith JM, Ward JM, Sodek J. Polypetide transforming growth factors isolated from bovine sources and used for wound healing in vivo. Science. 219(4590):1329-1331 (1983). Bovine transforming growth factors (which are found in bovine colostrum) accelerated the accumulation of total protein, collagen and DNA in experimental wound healing chambers placed subcutaneously in the backs of rats.
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Tavakkol A, Elder JT, Griffiths CE, Cooper KD, Talwar H, Fisher GJ, Keane KM, Foltin SK, Voorhees JJ. Expression of growth hormone receptor, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and IGF-1 receptor mRNA and proteins in human skin. Journal of Investigative Dermatology 99(3):343-349 (1992). Receptors for growth hormone and IGF-1 were isolated from human skin, indicating that growth hormone and growth factors may influence skin growth directly.
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Tokuyama H, Tokuyama Y, Migita S. Isolation of two new proteins from bovine colostrum which stimulates epidermal growth factor-dependent colony formation of NRK-49F cells. Growth Factors. 3(2):105-114 (1990). Two new growth factors were isolated from bovine colostrum with qualities similar to TGF-beta.
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Tokuyama Y. Purification and identification of TGF-beta 2-related growth factor from bovine colostrum. Journal of Dairy Research. 60(1):99-109 (1993). TGF-B2 is found in bovine colostrum.
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Tollefsen S, Lajara R, McCusker R, Clemmons D, Rotwein P. Insulin-like growth factors (IGF) in muscle development. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 264(23):13810-13817 (1989). IGF-1, IGF-2, the IGF-1 receptor and IGF binding protein act together to stimulate muscle cell proliferation and differentiation.
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Tomas FM, Knowles SE, Owens PC, Read LC, Chandler CS, Gargosky SE, Ballard FJ. Increased weight gain, nitrogen retention and muscle protein synthesis following treatment of diabetic rats with insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and des(1-3)IGF-I. Biochemistry Journal 276(Pt 2):547-554 (1991). IGF-1 and its truncated form, des (1-3) IGF-1, stimulate muscle protein synthesis and improve nitrogen balance in diabetes without influencing the abnormal carbohydrate metabolism.
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Ullman M, Ullman A, Sommerland H, Skottner A, Oldfors A. Effects of growth hormone on muscle regeneration and IGF-I concentration in old rats. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 140(4):521-525 (1990). Growth hormone given to aged rats increased levels of IGF-1 to that of young rats but did not reverse the impairment of muscle regeneration, as this is most likely a result of the formation of large amounts of connective tissue which impair growth.
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Watson DL, Francis GL, Ballard FJ. Factors in ruminant colostrum that influence cell growth and murine IgE antibody responses. Journal of Dairy Research 59(3):369-380 (1992). An extract of bovine colostrum was found to stimulate the growth of rat muscle cells, mouse fibroblasts, and hamster kidney cells better than fetal bovine serum. Bovine colostrum also suppressed IgE antibody responses, which are important in allergies.
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